PHOTOPTICS 2014 Abstracts


Area 1 - Optics

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

Photon-pair Generation in Chalcogenide Glass - Role of Waveguide Linear Absorption

Authors:

Nuno A. Silva and Armando N. Pinto

Abstract: We investigate the impact of waveguide loss on the generation rate of quantum correlated photon-pairs through four-wave mixing in a chalcogenide glass fiber. The obtained results are valid even when the photon-pairs are generated in a medium with non-negligible loss, αL>> 1. The impact of the loss is quantified through the analysis of the true, total and accidental counting rates at waveguide output. We use the coincidence-to- accidental ratio (CAR) as a figure of merit of the photon-pair source. Results indicate that, the CAR parameter tends to decrease with the increase of the waveguide length, until L < 1/α. However, a continuous increase of the waveguide length tends to lead to an increase on the CAR value. In that non-negligible loss regime, αL>>1, we are able to observe a significant decrease on the value of all coincidence counting rates. Nevertheless, that decrease is even more pronounced on the accidental counting rate. Moreover, for waveguide length L = 10/α we are able to obtain a CAR of the order of 70, which is higher than the CAR value for the specific case of α = 0 with L = 2 cm, i.e. CAR=42. This indicates that the waveguide loss can improve the degree of quantum correlation between the photon-pairs.

Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Development of IR Single Mode Optical Fibers for DARWIN-nulling Interferometry

Authors:

Shahina M. C. Abdulla, Lun-Kai Cheng, Boudewijn v.d. Bosch, Niels Dijkhuizen, Remco Nieuwland, Wim Gielesen, Jaques Lucas, Catherine Boussard-Plédel, Clément Conseil, Bruno Bureau and João Pereira Do Carmo

Abstract: The DARWIN mission aims to detect weak infra-red emission lines from distant orbiting earth-like planets using nulling interferometry. This requires filtering of wavefront errors using single mode waveguides operating at a wavelength range of 6.5-20 µm. This article describes the optical design of the fibers, the manufacturing protocol, the packaging for operating at cryogenic environment and various optical characterisations performed. The latter includes investigation on the effect of gold and silver absorption coatings, anti-reflection coating, fiber length on higher order mode suppression and attenuation of the fibers.

Area 2 - Lasers

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Compressor Design for a 30fs-300J 10PW Ti:sapphire Laser - Divided-compressor with an Object-Image-Grating Self-tiling Tiled Grating

Authors:

Zhaoyang Li, Tao Wang, Guang Xu and Yaping Dai

Abstract: A 30fs-300J Ti:sapphire laser need an optimized compressor to compress the 8ns/90nm deep chirped long pulse to 30fs. We proposed a compressor design, which reduces the grating number, grating size, vacuum compression chamber cubage, and system complexity by using a divided-compressor structure and an object-image-grating self-tiling method.

Area 3 - Optics

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Nanophotonics Within Optical Fiber Using Lab On Fiber Technology

Authors:

Alessio Crescitelli, Marco Consales, Giuseppe Quero, Armando Ricciardi, Emanuela Esposito and Andrea Cusano

Abstract: Recently, we have proposed a fabrication path enabling the integration and patterning of functional materials at the micro and nano-scale onto optical fibers. This process has been validated through the realization, directly onto the termination of a standard optical fiber tip, of a bi-dimensional metallo-dielectric plasmonic crystal slab, supporting local surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs). Here, we first demonstrate how, exploiting the large set of degrees of freedom, it is possible to tailor the field distribution of the plasmonic mode enabling, the control on the refractive index sensitivity of the device. In particular, we experimentally observed that the device is able to detect the formation of nano-sized overlays over very limited active areas. Furthermore, we demonstrate how it is possible to tailor the field distribution of the excited LSPR, acting on the geometrical parameters. Finally, by breaking the circular crystal symmetry at both unit cell or entire lattice levels, we show how is possible to obtain polarization sensitive devices.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

Breath Figure Self-Assembly for Multifunctional Sensing of Optical Fiber Nanoprobe

Authors:

Marco Pisco, Giuseppe Quero, Agostino Iadicicco, Michele Giordano, Francesco Galeotti and Andrea Cusano

Abstract: The “Lab on Fiber” technology has been recently proposed as a valuable route for the realization of novel and highly functionalized technological platforms completely integrated in a single optical fiber in communication and sensing applications. As a follow up of the proposed technological approach, here, we present recent results on the fabrication of metallo-dielectric structures on the optical fiber tip by using a self-assembly technique. Our studies aim to attain advanced nanostructured sensors by exploiting easy and low cost fabrication processes suitable to be employed in massive production of technologically advanced devices. The pursued approach basically consists in the preliminary preparation of a patterned polymeric film by the breath figure technique, directly on the optical fiber tip, and in the successive metal deposition by evaporation. The experimental results demonstrate the successful creation of a metallo-dielectric honeycomb pattern on the optical fiber tip. The experimental spectral features are in good agreement with the numerical analysis, elucidating the photonic and plasmonic interactions occurring in the Lab onto the optical fiber tip. The sensing properties of the optical fiber probes have been successfully demonstrated their potentialities for chemical, biological and acoustic sensing applications.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

Transformer Working Condition Assessment using Laser Raman Spectroscopy

Authors:

Toshihiro Somekawa, Makoto Kasaoka, Fumio Kawachi, Yoshitomo Nagano, Masayuki Fujita and Yasukazu Izawa

Abstract: Analyses of dissolved gas and furfural in the insulating oil are a very efficient tool for assessing the working conditions of transformer. We propose the in-situ transformer health diagnosis without the need for oil sampling by measuring the Raman signals from C2H2 and furfural concentrations present in transformer oils. Raman signals in oil at ~1972 cm-1 and ~1705 cm-1 originating from C2H2 and furfural, respectively, were detected. The results show that laser Raman spectroscopy is a useful alternative method to diagnose the transformer faults.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

High Efficiency and Low Photodegradation in Random Laser, using Novel TiO2@Silica Nanoparticles

Authors:

Ernesto Jimenez-Villar, Valdeci Mestre, Paulo C. De Oliveira, Wagner M. Faustino and Gilberto F. De Sá

Abstract: Here we have studied a novel scattering medium for random laser. This medium is composed of TiO2@Silica nanoparticles suspended in an ethanol solution of rhodamine 6G. TiO2 nanoparticles with average diameter of 0.41 μm were coated with a silica shell of ~40 nm thickness. Random laser study comparing TiO2 and TiO2@Silica nanoparticles suspended in ethanol solution of rhodamine 6G was performed. The study showed a high efficiency, low threshold, narrower bandwidth and lower photodegradation for TiO2@Silica system. Optical and chemical stability has been combined by coating TiO2 nanoparticles with a silica shell of ~40nm thickness.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

Modelling Fluorescent Materials with a Spectral Overlap between Excitation and Emission Spectrum

Authors:

Sven Leyre, Martijn Withouck, Guy Durinck, Geert Deconinck and Peter Hanselaer

Abstract: The adding-doubling method can be used to determine the reflection and transmission characteristics of fluorescent materials. In this work, the method was adapted to allow the implementation of fluorescent particles with a significant overlap between excitation and emission spectrum. The proposed method was validated by comparing its results to the simulation results of traditional Monte Carlo ray tracing. The average difference over the visible wavelength range between the two methods was found to be smaller than 0.5%. The proposed adding-doubling method was adapted for the simulation of a blue light-emitting diode with a remote phosphor converter containing YAG:Ce phosphor. It was shown that it is important to take the spectral overlap between excitation and emission spectrum into account to determine the colour characteristics with sufficient accuracy.

Paper Nr: 84
Title:

The Novel Optical System of Measuring the Speed of Starlight

Authors:

Jingshown Wu, Yen-Ru Huang, Shenq-Tsong Chang, Hen-Wai Tsao, San-Liang Lee and Wei-Cheng Lin

Abstract: We proposed a novel method and implemented an optical system accordingly to measure the speed of starlight by using the well-known speed of light from a terrestrial source, c, as a metric basis. This system consists of a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter modulated starlight, terrestrial red and infrared lights into pulses simultaneously. These pulses were detected by the distant receiver. A high speed oscilloscope is used to record the pulses arrival times, where the terrestrial infrared pulse and the red pulse are used as the trigger and the reference signals. During the measurement, we employed a terrestrial white light travelling along the exact path of the starlight to calibrate the system. We found that the starlight pulses arrived at the receiver with various degrees of delays, compared with that of the terrestrial white light pulse. The values of the delays are likely related to the relative radial velocities of the stars. The result implies that the measured apparent speed of starlight is not constant.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

Nonlinearities and their Distortion Effects in COherent-OFDM Systems

Authors:

Gabor Fekete and Tibor Berceli

Abstract: Nonlinear Mach-Zehnder Modulator and single mode fiber distort the transmitted signal. Their distortions were examined with VPIphotonics and the results of the two cases were compared with each other. It is important to know which element has higher effect to signal. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing modulation was used because next generation optical network will use this modulation form.

Area 4 - Photonics

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 12
Title:

Germination Vigour versus Delayed Luminescence of Coffee Seeds - Preliminary Series

Authors:

Cristiano M. Gallep, Evelyn M. do Amaral, Geovana C. Alonco, Mirian P. Maluf and Lilian Padilha

Abstract: Nine coffee seeds samples submitted to different post-harvest treatments were tested in terms of ultra-weak delayed luminescence and induced to germinate afterwards. Hyperbolic decay function was used to quantify the time profiles and their fitting parameters were correlated to the correspondent germination vigour (total seedlings’ elongation). Good linear relation was found (R2 > 0.85) for the initial value parameter as well as for the decay velocity parameter. These preliminary results point to further tests in order to validate a photonic, non-invasive, non-destructive test for coffee seed’s viability analyses.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Fibre-optic Probe Design with Side-Surface Interface

Authors:

Makoto Tsubokawa

Abstract: .

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

Directionality Control of Light-emitting Devices through Sub-micron Dielectric Structures

Authors:

Yoshikuni Hirano, Katsu Tanaka, Yasushi Motoyama, Nobuo Saito, Hiroshi Kikuchi and Naoki Shimidzu

Abstract: We have been investigating directional light control methods of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We propose a method that makes it possible to control a principal axis in field intensity through fine-structures on the LEDs. We also describe the concept of this method and essential points for obtaining a sharply defined principal axis. The effectiveness of the method was verified through differences in angular distributions by using the finite-different time-domain method.

Area 5 - Optics

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 28
Title:

Impact of Multi-Rate and Multi-Format Crosstalk Signals on the Performance of 40 Gbit/s DQPSK Optical Receivers

Authors:

João L. Rebola, Luis G. C. Cancela and João J. O. Pires

Abstract: The coexistence of signals with different modulation formats and different bit rates in metropolitan optical networks is, nowadays, a reality. In-band crosstalk can be very detrimental to the performance of those networks. In this work, the impact of in-band crosstalk due to multi-format and multi-rate signals on the performance of 40 Gbit/s DQPSK optical receivers is evaluated. It is shown that the worst interferer is the 10 Gbit/s OOK signal, which is the most common modulation format in today’s optical networks.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

Photoluminescence Characterization of Zn- and Cs-Vanadate Phosphors

Authors:

Tingting Li, Zentaro Honda, Takeshi Fukuda, Jiaolian Luo and Norihiko Kamata

Abstract: We synthesized Zn3V2O8, CsVO3 and Cs3VO4 by sol-gel process and studied their crystalline and luminescent properties. By optimizing the sintering conditions, pure phases of aim samples including Cs3VO4 were obtained. The annealing temperatures of 450℃ for CsVO3, 600℃ for Cs3VO4, respectively, are lower than that of 750℃ for Zn3V2O8 at the same duration of 12h. The Cs3VO4 showed quantum yield of 90% with the half-width of 120nm. It became clear that the Cs-V-O system, especially Cs3VO4, is promising for white LED applications.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

Portable OCT and its Industrial Application - Simple OCT for Industrial Use and Basic Health Care

Authors:

Tatsuo Shiina

Abstract: Portable OCT; Optical Coherence Tomography has been developed for industrial use. This portable OCT is time-domain type and it is evolved independently from the medical OCT in terms of product cost, system size, flexibility, and its concept. To realize the unique concept, the new scanning mechanism was devised, which is consisted of a rotating corner-reflector and a fixed mirror. Its scanning rate is not so high (<200scan/s), while its measurement range can be enlarged easily. The Spectra-domain OCTs such as Fourier-domain and Swept-source OCTs needs signal processing to obtain the information in the depth direction. Their resolution depends on the scanning range and the sampling-rate. The time-domain OCT has the feature that the resolution only depends on the spectrum width of the incident beam in isolation from the measurement range. The depth information can be derived from the measured data easily and directly. The system structure of the portable OCT is elastic in viewpoints of design of the optical prove and the measurement range, and it is applied in various fields to date. Industrial use, educational aim, and basic health care are its applications. In this report, the concept and the technical feature of the portable OCT are mentioned. The concrete applications are introduced to represent the flexibility of the portable OCT, too.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

Study of the Evolution of Soot Formation using Laser-induced Incandescence

Authors:

Lincoln Tolomelli e Tolomelli, Luiz Gilberto Barreta, Pedro Teixeira Lacava and Dermeval Carinhana Jr.

Abstract: Soot particles usually cause respiratory diseases and other problems to human health. To prevent or at least reduces soot emissions it is necessary to know its formation mechanism. Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) has been used to detect soot and its precursors, known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in diffusion flames. In this work, several mixtures of diesel/biodiesel blends were investigated using two laser wavelengths, at 532 nm, which excites both soot and PAHs, and at 1064 nm, which excites only soot. Thus, the difference of intensity between both LII signals provides the proportion of soot/PAHs in the irradiated regions of flames, and it can be associated to the evolution of soot formation along the flame.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

Gamma-ray Dose-rate Dependence of Fiber Bragg Grating Inscribed Germano-silicate Glass Optical Fiber with Boron-doped Inner Cladding

Authors:

Seongmin Ju, Youngwoong Kim, Seongmook Jeong, Jong-Yeol Kim, Nam-Ho Lee, Hyun-Kyu Jung and Won-Taek Han

Abstract: The dose-rate effect on the spectral characteristics of the fiber Bragg grating written in the germano-silicate optical fiber incorporated with boron oxide in the inner cladding under gamma-ray radiation was investigated for sensing applications. The Bragg peak shift of the FBG was found to saturate at a 78 pm level and a radiation-induced attenuation of 1.345 dB/m was obtained with the accumulated dose-rate of 22.86 kGy/h. However, the full-width half maximum bandwidth of the FBG remained practically unchanged.

Area 6 - Lasers

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 53
Title:

Propagation and Amplification of a Short Subterahertz Pulse in a Plasma Channel in Air Created by Intense Laser Radiation

Authors:

A. V. Bogatskaya, A. M. Popov and E. A. Volkova

Abstract: The evolution of the electron energy distribution function in the plasma channel created in air by the third harmonic of the Ti:Sa-laser pulse of femtosecond duration is studied. It is shown that such a channel can be used to amplify few-cycle electromagnetic pulses in subterahertz frequency range at the time of relaxation of the energy spectrum in air determined by the vibrational excitation of the nitrogen molecules. The coefficients of the gain as a function of time, electron concentration and frequency of the amplifying radiation are obtained. The propagation of few-cycle radio-frequency pulses through the amplifying medium is analyzed.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

2D-0D Direct Capture of Carriers in Quantum Dot Lasers under Optical Feedback

Authors:

George Andre Pereira The

Abstract: In this paper the operation of quantum dot lasers under optical feedback is studied on the basis of calculated Lyapunov exponents of the dynamic multi-population rate-equations. Influence of the direct capture path for the wetting layer carriers on the sensitivity to initial conditions is discussed. Results show that positive exponents are achieved for different current injection scenarios, and that negative exponents are mainly due to carriers in the dot confined states. Furthermore, existence of hiperchaos is obtained with both cascade and direct capture models.

Area 7 - Optics

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 81
Title:

Digital Holographic Encryption with Multiple-key Encoding using Micro Phase-shifting Interferometry

Authors:

Huang-Tian Chan, Yang-Kun Chew, Min-Tzung Shiu and Chi Ching Chang

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel phase-shifting digital in-line holography with computer-generated holograms (CGHs) to achieve the goal of encryption via multiple-key encoding. Multiple keys will also be required in order to complete the decryption. These keys include the amplitude and the phase distribution of the primary encryption key, the reconstruction distance of the image, and the phase value modulated via micro phase-shifting interferometry. Experiments in this research have proved that the decryption would not be possible without a primary key. The autocorrelation between the original and the decrypted images shows very high similarity.

Paper Nr: 85
Title:

Analytical Modeling for Performance Evaluation of ASE Noise-impaired Direct-detection Single-sideband Multi-band Optical OFDM Systems

Authors:

Pedro Cruz , Tiago Alves and Adolfo Cartaxo

Abstract: An analytical model for performance evaluation of amplified spontaneous emission noise-impaired direct detection single-sideband multi-band (MB) optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems is proposed. The bit error ratio (BER) is used as figure of merit for performance evaluation, and is obtained through an analytical relationship between the electrical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the optical SNR. The effectiveness of the analytical model is verified through comparison of the BER estimates provided by the analytical model with the ones obtained using numerical simulation and the exhaustive Gaussian approach. Excellent agreement of the BER results is verified when distortion does not affect significantly the MB-OFDM signal performance.

Area 8 - Photonics

Posters
Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Surface Plasmon Devices for Nanoscale Integration with Electronic Device on Silicon - Optical Signal Transmission and Detection through Surface Plasmon on Nanoscale Circuit

Authors:

M. Fukuda, T. Aihara, M. Fukuhara, A. Takeda, Y. Ishii and T. Ishiyama

Abstract: This paper discusses the architecture of surface plasmon devices for silicon-based nanoscale-integrated circuits. A suitable structure for surface plasmon devices integrated monolithically with electronic devices is described based on surface plasmon devices fabricated in our group. These devices were fabricated on silicon with conventional CMOS processes. In the devices, light-wave signals are converted into surface plasmon signals with a grating and detected with a Schottky-type diode on a silicon substrate. Both intensity and frequency signals are transmitted along the surface plasmon waveguide in the nanoscale circuit. Such signals were easily amplified with MOSFETs integrated monolithically on the silicon substrate. Here, the wavelength of light used in the circuit is set within the 1550-nm-wavelength band to prevent signals absorption by silicon. This can lead to a simpler structure for waveguides and devices on silicon substrates. These techniques and devices will open a new phase for surface plasmon circuits integrated with electronic devices on silicon substrates.

Area 9 - Optics

Posters
Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Gas-filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers

Authors:

Sílvia Rodrigues, Margarida Facão, Sofia Latas and Mário Ferreira

Abstract: We investigate the ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond pulse propagation in a gas-filled kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). We show that, by varying the gas pressure, the zero dispersion wavelength of such fiber can be tuned across the ultraviolet (UV), visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The soliton effect compression, deep-UV light and supercontinumm generation are investigated using a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Light-trail based Hierarchy - The Optimal Multicast Route in WDM Networks Without Splitters and Converters

Authors:

Dinh Danh Le and Massinissa Merabet

Abstract: Multicasting in WDM core networks is known as an efficient way of communications in high-speed multimedia applications. However, costly and complicated fabrication prevents multicast capable switches (splitters) from deploying in the proposed architectures. Besides, in practical routing cases, the state of the network is given by a directed graph. Accordingly, this paper investigates the multicast routing without splitters in directed asymmetric topologies. The objective is to minimize the number of wavelengths used and then find the best cost solution among those requiring the same number of wavelengths. In the case of no splitters, a set of light-paths starting from the multicast source covering all the destinations is known as the traditional solution. In this paper, we introduce two new concepts namely light-trail based hierarchy and light-path based hierarchy, and develop two ILP formulations for them. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the optimal solution is a set of light-trail based hierarchies. Particularly, our light-trail based solution achieves fewer wavelengths required (up to 21.95% saved) while keeping slightly lower cost (up to 3.79% saved) compared to light-path based solution.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

Spontaneous Emission of Radiation by Solitons in Fiber-optic Waveguides

Authors:

E. Tchomgo Felenou, P. Tchofo Dinda and C. M. Ngabireng

Abstract: We examine the dynamical behavior of light pulses displaying a soliton-like behavior, but which are affected, when entering a fiber-optic waveguide, by a slight perturbation of profile as compared to the stationary profile in the waveguide. We show that, surprisingly, certain pulses propagate while emitting a radiation whereas other pulses emit no radiation. A physical explanation of this difference of behavior is proposed, and tools of prediction of the radiating or non-radiating character of a light pulse in fiber-optic waveguides, are set up.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

Persistent Spectral Hole-Burning by Two Pulses of Arbitrary Duration

Authors:

Inna Rebane

Abstract: Two-step spectral hole-burning are considered in the cases of three- and four-level systems and an arbitrary duration of burning pulses. The shapes of the spectral holes (more exactly – the spectral hole-burning efficiencies that determined them) in inhomogeneous distribution functions of the centers over the transition frequencies of the first and the second steps are calculated. It is shown that with increasing the time delay between pulses the widths of the spectral holes in the inhomogeneous distribution function corresponding to the absorption of the pulses on end at the first step of this process decrease. This phenomenon does not depend on the duration of the second burning pulse and is absent at the second step of the process.

Area 10 - Photonics

Posters
Paper Nr: 38
Title:

Multicasting Characteristics of All-optical Triode based on Negative Feedback Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

Authors:

S. Aisyah Azizan, M. Syafiq Azmi and Yoshinobu Maeda

Abstract: We introduce an all-optical multicasting characteristics with wavelength conversion based on all-optical triode using two negative feedback semiconductor optical amplifiers at a transfer speed of 10 Gbps to a non return zero 231-1 pseudorandom bit sequence system. This multi-wavelength converter device can simultaneously provide two channels of output signal with the support of non-inverted and inverted conversion. We reported an all-optical multicasting and wavelength conversion accomplishing cross gain modulation is effective in a semiconductor optical amplifier in order to provide an inverted conversion thus negative feedback. The relationship of received power of back to back signal and output signals with wavelength 1530 nm, 1540 nm, 1545 nm, 1555 nm, and 1560 nm with bit error rate was investigated. It was found that the output signal wavelengths were successfully converted and modulated with a power penalty of less than 5 dB which the highest is 4.7 dB while the lowest is 2.2 dB. It was realized that all-optical multicasting and wavelength conversion using an optical triode with a negative feedback by two channels at the same time at a speed of 10 Gbps is possible.

Area 11 - Optics

Posters
Paper Nr: 46
Title:

F2-Laser Microfabrication of Diffractive Phase Elements

Authors:

M. Pfeifer, F. Jahn, A. Kratsch, B. Steiger and S. Weissmantel

Abstract: Fluorine laser microfabrication enables direct structuring of diffractive phase elements in fused silica. These elements are used as beam shapers for the wide wavelength range from 248 to 1100 nm. We present selected phase elements for laser beam shaping in the visible wavelength range. Furthermore we show the laser beam shaping of a fiber laser with a wavelength of λ = 1070 nm. The main advantage of this application is the much more compact design compared with the current used method of beam shaping by conventional optics. Fluorine laser microstructuring provides an effective alternative to lithography techniques. It is a fast and individual method to fabricate customized or prototype diffractive phase elements in a cost-effective way.

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

The Effect of Filtering on the OSNR - For a 40- and 100 Gb/s DWDM System

Authors:

Morad Khosravi Eghbal

Abstract: Quality measures like Bit Error Rate (BER) and Optical Signal to Noise Ratio (OSNR) are important indicators for verifying the quality of a received signal in the optical fiber communication. Different components like Wavelength Selective Switches and Optical Interleaver Units used in a Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexed network can decrease the operating bandwidth. This work investigates the effect of bandwidth narrowing on the OSNR value in an optical fiber link.

Area 12 - Lasers

Posters
Paper Nr: 58
Title:

Precise Phase Measurements using an Entangled Coherent State

Authors:

P. A. Knott and J. A. Dunningham

Abstract: Quantum entanglement offers the possibility of making measurements beyond the classical limit, however some issues still need to be overcome before it can be applied in realistic lossy systems. Recent work has used quantum Fisher information (QFI) to show that entangled coherent states (ECSs) may be useful for this purpose as they combine sub-classical phase precision capabilities with robustness (Joo et al., 2011). However, to date no effective scheme for measuring a phase in lossy systems using an ECS has been devised. Here we present a scheme that does just this. We show how one could measure a phase to a precision significantly better than that attainable by both unentangled ‘classical’ states and highly-entangled NOON states over a wide range of different losses. This brings quantum metrology closer to being a realistic and practical technology.

Area 13 - Photonics

Posters
Paper Nr: 64
Title:

Molecular Beam Epitaxy of (ErxSc1-x)2O3 on Si(111) for Active Integrated Optical Devices

Authors:

H. Omi, T. Tawara, T. Hozumi, R. Kaji, S. Adachi, H. Gotoh and T. Sogawa

Abstract: We grew (ErxSc1-x)2O3 films on Si(111) as a function of x using the molecular beam epitaxy method. The films were characterized by synchrotron grazing incidence and normal X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence measurements in spectrum and time domains. We succeeded in obtaining (ErxSc1-x)2O3 films on Si(111) that are strained and exhibit 1.5-m light emission from Er3+ ions at 4 K and room temperature. We found that the epitaxial Er-doped Sc2O3 films are better candidates as a light emitting material than epitaxial layers of Er2O3 on Si(111).

Area 14 - Optics

Posters
Paper Nr: 65
Title:

Preliminary Monte Carlo based Inverse Model to Extract Optical Tissue Properties from Experimental Diffuse Reflectance Measurements - Coefficients Extraction for Gastrointestinal Dysplasia Detection

Authors:

S. Pimenta, E.M.S Castanheira and G. Minas

Abstract: The ability to detect cancer at its earliest stages, called ``dysplasia'', is the key of its successful treatment. Optical techniques, such as diffuse reflectance and intrinsic fluorescence, may improve the ability to detect gastrointestinal (GI) dysplasia since they have the potential to provide morphological and biochemical information of normal and malignant tissues. However, those optical tissue properties can only be provided if it is possible to extract information from the measured diffuse reflectance and intrinsic fluorescence signals. This paper presents the implementation and the validation of a preliminary Monte Carlo based inverse model to extract optical tissue properties, such as the absorption and the scattering coefficients, from diffuse reflectance experimental measurements in phantoms.

Paper Nr: 70
Title:

Kinetic Equation Method and Monte Carlo Method for Charge Carriers Dynamics Description in Diamond

Authors:

Yu. M. Belousov, I. V. Chernousov, V. R. Soloviev and I. A. Varfolomeev

Abstract: In this work charge carriers mobility in diamond, calculated by two means – by kinetic equation method and by Monte Carlo method – is analyzed. Temperature of diamond crystal less than 300 K and low concentration of impurities are considered, therefore carriers are scattered preliminary by acoustic phonons. Electron-phonon interaction is taken in deformation potential approximation. Phonon emission and adsorption rates are calculated and Monte-Carlo method is used to obtain carriers mobility. The mobility is compared with that obtained by kinetic equation method in our previous work. The results are important for the treatment of electrical experiments in pure monocrystalline diamonds.

Area 15 - Photonics

Posters
Paper Nr: 83
Title:

Universal Polariton Model of Laser-induced Condensed Matter Damage

Authors:

V. S. Makin

Abstract: The extension of known polariton model of laser-induced condensed matter damage followed by ordered structures formation for the case of ultrashort pulse durations and condensed matter of different physical properties was made. In addition to the usual cases of linear or circular polarizations of laser radiation the case of axi-symmetric polarization was theoretically considered and illustrated by experiments with dielectrics, semiconductors and metals. The special case of radially polarized laser radiation is distinguished as one for which laser-produced dynamic resonant the additional energy of excited surface polaritons into diffraction size focal spot. The advantages of axi-symmetrically polarized laser radiation for materials treatment in framework of universal polariton model were discussed. In experiments the wide variety of spatial periods of microstructures were observed which do not described by existing theories. The nonlinear mathematical model which describes the spatial periods of laser-produced microstructures was suggested. Model describes the formation of microstructures with periods multiplied by laser wavelength and predicts the spatial period’s values less than diffraction limit one. The nonlinear theoretical model is illustrated by published experimental data. The idea to explain the cause of the formation of regular nanostructures with anomalous orientation on condensed matter surfaces was suggested. It is based on the effect of wedge (channel) surface plasmon polaritons excitation and their mutual interference under the action of polarized laser radiation. The new phenomenon of laser-induced anisotropy of metal recrystallization under the action of nanosecond duration repetitive pulses of linear polarized radiation was experimentally discovered. The phenomenon was explained as a result of grain-boundary movement by directed flux of skin-layer electrons dragged by surface plasmon polaritons.